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Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis

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@article{IJASEIT12281,
   author = {Raudhah Ahmadi and Muhammad Haniz Azahari Muhamad Suhaili and Imtiyaz Akbar Najar and Muhammad Azmi Ladi and Nisa Aqila Bakie and Ahmed Faysal Abdullahi},
   title = {Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis},
   journal = {International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology},
   volume = {11},
   number = {4},
   year = {2021},
   pages = {1535--1542},
   keywords = {Soil flexibility; Belaga district Sarawak; seismic design response spectra; soil liquefaction hazard assessment.},
   abstract = {

This paper presents the evaluation of soil flexibility at the vicinity of the Bakun HEP Dam, the largest in East Malaysia. The dam is located in the Belaga District of Sarawak, approximately 50 km from the active Tubau and Bukit Mersing fault lines. This area experienced earthquakes of magnitudes ranging between 3.5 and 5.4 during the period from 1994 and 2010. This study used global and local earthquake records to evaluate the site specific seismic hazard using a 1-D equivalent linear analysis. SPT data from 15 boreholes are utilized. Soil flexibility, factor of safety, liquefaction probability and potential index are evaluated to ascertain the ground settlement and soil liquefaction effects. The results show that the ground amplification of Belaga District is between 2.445 and 5.146, while the peak ground accelerations (PGA) at ground surface are at a maximum average of 0.25g PGA. The soil factors for Bakun District range from 2.6 - 3.0, for 2% POE in 50 years. This corresponds to a 2475 year return period. The response spectra are found matching with the target design response spectra for Sarawak as reported in the Malaysia National Annex (MS EN 1998-1:2015). The effects of soil liquefaction are found to be insignificant, as a result the nearby Bakun HEP dam is considered safe from any ground settlement. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the ability of new or existing structures in Belaga District to withstand up to 0.25g PGA in case any seismic event should occur in the future. 

},    issn = {2088-5334},    publisher = {INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development},    url = {http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=12281},    doi = {10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.12281} }

EndNote

%A Ahmadi, Raudhah
%A Muhamad Suhaili, Muhammad Haniz Azahari
%A Najar, Imtiyaz Akbar
%A Ladi, Muhammad Azmi
%A Bakie, Nisa Aqila
%A Abdullahi, Ahmed Faysal
%D 2021
%T Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis
%B 2021
%9 Soil flexibility; Belaga district Sarawak; seismic design response spectra; soil liquefaction hazard assessment.
%! Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis
%K Soil flexibility; Belaga district Sarawak; seismic design response spectra; soil liquefaction hazard assessment.
%X 

This paper presents the evaluation of soil flexibility at the vicinity of the Bakun HEP Dam, the largest in East Malaysia. The dam is located in the Belaga District of Sarawak, approximately 50 km from the active Tubau and Bukit Mersing fault lines. This area experienced earthquakes of magnitudes ranging between 3.5 and 5.4 during the period from 1994 and 2010. This study used global and local earthquake records to evaluate the site specific seismic hazard using a 1-D equivalent linear analysis. SPT data from 15 boreholes are utilized. Soil flexibility, factor of safety, liquefaction probability and potential index are evaluated to ascertain the ground settlement and soil liquefaction effects. The results show that the ground amplification of Belaga District is between 2.445 and 5.146, while the peak ground accelerations (PGA) at ground surface are at a maximum average of 0.25g PGA. The soil factors for Bakun District range from 2.6 - 3.0, for 2% POE in 50 years. This corresponds to a 2475 year return period. The response spectra are found matching with the target design response spectra for Sarawak as reported in the Malaysia National Annex (MS EN 1998-1:2015). The effects of soil liquefaction are found to be insignificant, as a result the nearby Bakun HEP dam is considered safe from any ground settlement. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the ability of new or existing structures in Belaga District to withstand up to 0.25g PGA in case any seismic event should occur in the future. 

%U http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=12281 %R doi:10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.12281 %J International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology %V 11 %N 4 %@ 2088-5334

IEEE

Raudhah Ahmadi,Muhammad Haniz Azahari Muhamad Suhaili,Imtiyaz Akbar Najar,Muhammad Azmi Ladi,Nisa Aqila Bakie and Ahmed Faysal Abdullahi,"Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1535-1542, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.12281.

RefMan/ProCite (RIS)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Ahmadi, Raudhah
AU  - Muhamad Suhaili, Muhammad Haniz Azahari
AU  - Najar, Imtiyaz Akbar
AU  - Ladi, Muhammad Azmi
AU  - Bakie, Nisa Aqila
AU  - Abdullahi, Ahmed Faysal
PY  - 2021
TI  - Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis
JF  - International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology; Vol. 11 (2021) No. 4
Y2  - 2021
SP  - 1535
EP  - 1542
SN  - 2088-5334
PB  - INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development
KW  - Soil flexibility; Belaga district Sarawak; seismic design response spectra; soil liquefaction hazard assessment.
N2  - 

This paper presents the evaluation of soil flexibility at the vicinity of the Bakun HEP Dam, the largest in East Malaysia. The dam is located in the Belaga District of Sarawak, approximately 50 km from the active Tubau and Bukit Mersing fault lines. This area experienced earthquakes of magnitudes ranging between 3.5 and 5.4 during the period from 1994 and 2010. This study used global and local earthquake records to evaluate the site specific seismic hazard using a 1-D equivalent linear analysis. SPT data from 15 boreholes are utilized. Soil flexibility, factor of safety, liquefaction probability and potential index are evaluated to ascertain the ground settlement and soil liquefaction effects. The results show that the ground amplification of Belaga District is between 2.445 and 5.146, while the peak ground accelerations (PGA) at ground surface are at a maximum average of 0.25g PGA. The soil factors for Bakun District range from 2.6 - 3.0, for 2% POE in 50 years. This corresponds to a 2475 year return period. The response spectra are found matching with the target design response spectra for Sarawak as reported in the Malaysia National Annex (MS EN 1998-1:2015). The effects of soil liquefaction are found to be insignificant, as a result the nearby Bakun HEP dam is considered safe from any ground settlement. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the ability of new or existing structures in Belaga District to withstand up to 0.25g PGA in case any seismic event should occur in the future. 

UR - http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=12281 DO - 10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.12281

RefWorks

RT Journal Article
ID 12281
A1 Ahmadi, Raudhah
A1 Muhamad Suhaili, Muhammad Haniz Azahari
A1 Najar, Imtiyaz Akbar
A1 Ladi, Muhammad Azmi
A1 Bakie, Nisa Aqila
A1 Abdullahi, Ahmed Faysal
T1 Evaluation on the Soil Flexibility of the Largest HEP Dam Area in East Malaysia using 1-D Equivalent Linear Analysis
JF International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology
VO 11
IS 4
YR 2021
SP 1535
OP 1542
SN 2088-5334
PB INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development
K1 Soil flexibility; Belaga district Sarawak; seismic design response spectra; soil liquefaction hazard assessment.
AB 

This paper presents the evaluation of soil flexibility at the vicinity of the Bakun HEP Dam, the largest in East Malaysia. The dam is located in the Belaga District of Sarawak, approximately 50 km from the active Tubau and Bukit Mersing fault lines. This area experienced earthquakes of magnitudes ranging between 3.5 and 5.4 during the period from 1994 and 2010. This study used global and local earthquake records to evaluate the site specific seismic hazard using a 1-D equivalent linear analysis. SPT data from 15 boreholes are utilized. Soil flexibility, factor of safety, liquefaction probability and potential index are evaluated to ascertain the ground settlement and soil liquefaction effects. The results show that the ground amplification of Belaga District is between 2.445 and 5.146, while the peak ground accelerations (PGA) at ground surface are at a maximum average of 0.25g PGA. The soil factors for Bakun District range from 2.6 - 3.0, for 2% POE in 50 years. This corresponds to a 2475 year return period. The response spectra are found matching with the target design response spectra for Sarawak as reported in the Malaysia National Annex (MS EN 1998-1:2015). The effects of soil liquefaction are found to be insignificant, as a result the nearby Bakun HEP dam is considered safe from any ground settlement. This study highlights the importance of evaluating the ability of new or existing structures in Belaga District to withstand up to 0.25g PGA in case any seismic event should occur in the future. 

LK http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=12281 DO - 10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.12281