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Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018

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@article{IJASEIT14845,
   author = {L.K. Comfort and K. Soga and M. McElwee and C. Ecosse and B. Zhao},
   title = {Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018},
   journal = {International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology},
   volume = {11},
   number = {4},
   year = {2021},
   pages = {1678--1687},
   keywords = {Wildfire; evacuation plans; communications technologies; traffic modeling; community resilience.},
   abstract = {Wildfires constitute an increased risk for California, with the frequency, size, and scale of extreme events and ensuing losses escalating year by year. This article presents a case study of the Camp Fire, Butte County, California, on November 8, 2018. The event exceeded the parameters of prior emergency planning and led to the loss of 85 lives, the deadliest wildfire in California’s history. The study’s objective is to identify gaps in the information flow within and among actors that led to this outcome and to propose more robust strategies that would enable communities to manage wildfire risk sustainably. Data were collected through documentary analysis of existing emergency plans, policies, and protocols; field site visits to the damaged area; attendance at the Paradise Town meeting; and semi-structured interviews with emergency officials who had responsibility for managing the event and residents of the damaged area. A unique combination of highly risky conditions compelled the urgent evacuation of the entire Town of Paradise when emergency personnel was committed to fire suppression in a neighboring community, leaving residents of Paradise to manage their evacuation. Communications failed; regional communities, not alerted, continued standard traffic patterns, creating a massive slowdown in evacuation from Paradise.  Key insights from this study include: 1) the need to model wildfire as a regional event; 2) informed residents of communities at risk act collectively to protect the community as a whole; and 3) interaction of science, technology, and human organizations create an interdisciplinary science for managing wildfire.},
   issn = {2088-5334},
   publisher = {INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development},
   url = {http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=14845},
   doi = {10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.14845}
}

EndNote

%A Comfort, L.K.
%A Soga, K.
%A McElwee, M.
%A Ecosse, C.
%A Zhao, B.
%D 2021
%T Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018
%B 2021
%9 Wildfire; evacuation plans; communications technologies; traffic modeling; community resilience.
%! Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018
%K Wildfire; evacuation plans; communications technologies; traffic modeling; community resilience.
%X Wildfires constitute an increased risk for California, with the frequency, size, and scale of extreme events and ensuing losses escalating year by year. This article presents a case study of the Camp Fire, Butte County, California, on November 8, 2018. The event exceeded the parameters of prior emergency planning and led to the loss of 85 lives, the deadliest wildfire in California’s history. The study’s objective is to identify gaps in the information flow within and among actors that led to this outcome and to propose more robust strategies that would enable communities to manage wildfire risk sustainably. Data were collected through documentary analysis of existing emergency plans, policies, and protocols; field site visits to the damaged area; attendance at the Paradise Town meeting; and semi-structured interviews with emergency officials who had responsibility for managing the event and residents of the damaged area. A unique combination of highly risky conditions compelled the urgent evacuation of the entire Town of Paradise when emergency personnel was committed to fire suppression in a neighboring community, leaving residents of Paradise to manage their evacuation. Communications failed; regional communities, not alerted, continued standard traffic patterns, creating a massive slowdown in evacuation from Paradise.  Key insights from this study include: 1) the need to model wildfire as a regional event; 2) informed residents of communities at risk act collectively to protect the community as a whole; and 3) interaction of science, technology, and human organizations create an interdisciplinary science for managing wildfire.
%U http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=14845
%R doi:10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.14845
%J International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology
%V 11
%N 4
%@ 2088-5334

IEEE

L.K. Comfort,K. Soga,M. McElwee,C. Ecosse and B. Zhao,"Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018," International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 1678-1687, 2021. [Online]. Available: http://dx.doi.org/10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.14845.

RefMan/ProCite (RIS)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Comfort, L.K.
AU  - Soga, K.
AU  - McElwee, M.
AU  - Ecosse, C.
AU  - Zhao, B.
PY  - 2021
TI  - Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018
JF  - International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology; Vol. 11 (2021) No. 4
Y2  - 2021
SP  - 1678
EP  - 1687
SN  - 2088-5334
PB  - INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development
KW  - Wildfire; evacuation plans; communications technologies; traffic modeling; community resilience.
N2  - Wildfires constitute an increased risk for California, with the frequency, size, and scale of extreme events and ensuing losses escalating year by year. This article presents a case study of the Camp Fire, Butte County, California, on November 8, 2018. The event exceeded the parameters of prior emergency planning and led to the loss of 85 lives, the deadliest wildfire in California’s history. The study’s objective is to identify gaps in the information flow within and among actors that led to this outcome and to propose more robust strategies that would enable communities to manage wildfire risk sustainably. Data were collected through documentary analysis of existing emergency plans, policies, and protocols; field site visits to the damaged area; attendance at the Paradise Town meeting; and semi-structured interviews with emergency officials who had responsibility for managing the event and residents of the damaged area. A unique combination of highly risky conditions compelled the urgent evacuation of the entire Town of Paradise when emergency personnel was committed to fire suppression in a neighboring community, leaving residents of Paradise to manage their evacuation. Communications failed; regional communities, not alerted, continued standard traffic patterns, creating a massive slowdown in evacuation from Paradise.  Key insights from this study include: 1) the need to model wildfire as a regional event; 2) informed residents of communities at risk act collectively to protect the community as a whole; and 3) interaction of science, technology, and human organizations create an interdisciplinary science for managing wildfire.
UR  - http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=14845
DO  - 10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.14845

RefWorks

RT Journal Article
ID 14845
A1 Comfort, L.K.
A1 Soga, K.
A1 McElwee, M.
A1 Ecosse, C.
A1 Zhao, B.
T1 Collective Action in Communities Exposed to Recurring Hazards: The Camp Fire, Butte County, California, November 8, 2018
JF International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology
VO 11
IS 4
YR 2021
SP 1678
OP 1687
SN 2088-5334
PB INSIGHT - Indonesian Society for Knowledge and Human Development
K1 Wildfire; evacuation plans; communications technologies; traffic modeling; community resilience.
AB Wildfires constitute an increased risk for California, with the frequency, size, and scale of extreme events and ensuing losses escalating year by year. This article presents a case study of the Camp Fire, Butte County, California, on November 8, 2018. The event exceeded the parameters of prior emergency planning and led to the loss of 85 lives, the deadliest wildfire in California’s history. The study’s objective is to identify gaps in the information flow within and among actors that led to this outcome and to propose more robust strategies that would enable communities to manage wildfire risk sustainably. Data were collected through documentary analysis of existing emergency plans, policies, and protocols; field site visits to the damaged area; attendance at the Paradise Town meeting; and semi-structured interviews with emergency officials who had responsibility for managing the event and residents of the damaged area. A unique combination of highly risky conditions compelled the urgent evacuation of the entire Town of Paradise when emergency personnel was committed to fire suppression in a neighboring community, leaving residents of Paradise to manage their evacuation. Communications failed; regional communities, not alerted, continued standard traffic patterns, creating a massive slowdown in evacuation from Paradise.  Key insights from this study include: 1) the need to model wildfire as a regional event; 2) informed residents of communities at risk act collectively to protect the community as a whole; and 3) interaction of science, technology, and human organizations create an interdisciplinary science for managing wildfire.
LK http://ijaseit.insightsociety.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9&Itemid=1&article_id=14845
DO  - 10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.14845