International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 10 (2020) No. 1, pages: 389-394, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.10.1.10987

Effects of Ripening Level and Processing Delay on the Characteristics of Oil Palm Fruit Bunches

Adi Ruswanto, Ari Handono Ramelan, Danar Praseptiangga, Ida Bagus Banyuro Partha

Abstract

Palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) are raw materials used in CPO mills and produced by palm oil plants. The nature and quality of these raw materials considerably affect the characteristics of the crude palm oil (CPO).  The characteristic of crude palm oil (CPO) can be affected by freshness level, ripening of palm fruit bunches, growing sites, poor transportation and harvest and postharvest systems. Amongst the aforementioned factors, the major problems that occur frequently are the ripening level and processing delay of palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and also brondolan (loose fruits from bunches). Harvested FFBs must be optimally ripened to achieve high oil content and must be immediately taken to the factory for processing.  Accordingly, the present study aims to evaluate the characteristics of palm oil produced at different ripening levels and processing delay times of palm fruit bunches from oil palm plantations in Ungaran, Central Java, Indonesia. The objects of this research are ripening level (underripe, ripe, overripe and brondolan) and processing delay time (12, 36 and 60 h). Results show that the ripening level and length of processing delay of palm fruit bunches can affect the deterioration of bleachability index (DOBI) value, free fatty acid (FFA) content, oil content, peroxide value (α = 0.05) and profile of fatty acid composition. A long processing delay increases FFA content and peroxide value, but decreases DOBI value and oil content. From the observed parameters, the best results are found on ripe FFBs with a processing delay time of 12 h. The results are still good at 36 h but deteriorated after 60 h.

Keywords:

processing delays; ripening level; fresh fruit bunches; brondolan.

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