International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 11 (2021) No. 4, pages: 1494-1500, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.11.4.12844

Rapid Detection of Escherchia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium Using Lab-Made Electronic Nose Coupled with Chemometric Tools

Wredha Sandhi Ardha Prakoso, Prima Febri Astantri, Kuwat Triyana, Tri Untari, Claude Mona Airin, Pudji Astuti


This study aims to investigate the performance of a lab-made electronic nose coupled with chemometric tools for detecting Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) inoculated in media. The pathogenic E. coli and S. Typhimurium play a significant role as the agent causing food-borne diseases, posing a threat to human health worldwide. Some advanced analytical instruments like RT-PCR and GC-MS are often used for detecting such pathogenic bacteria. Unfortunately, they are not suitable for rapid and routine measurements because of time-consuming, require experts, and complicated sample preparation. Otherwise, electronic nose (e-nose) has been reported to be successful for profiling volatile compounds released by various biological materials. The e-nose comprised eight types of metal oxide gas sensors connected with a data acquisition system and chemometric tools. For this purpose, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was applied for signal pre-processing and feature extraction to all datasets collected by the sensor array in the e-nose. Furthermore, chemometric tools are used for classification models of all extracted features, including linear and quadratic discriminant analysis (LDA and QDA) and support vector machine (SVM). As a result, SVM showed the highest performance, enabling identifying E. coli and S. Typhimurium inoculated TSB with an accuracy of 99% and 98%, respectively. Among the chemometric tools, the e-nose-SVM also resulted in the highest accuracy in differentiating E. coli from S. Typhimurium of 84%. These results motivated e-nose to have a high prospect to rapidly detect such bacteria for food safety and quality control inspection, particularly potential quarantine products.


Electronic nose; Escherichia coli; Salmonella Typhimurium; chemometric; metabolic volatile organic compounds.

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