International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 11 (2021) No. 6, pages: 2214-2219, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.11.6.14731

Effect of Tillage and Crop Rotation on Cereal Crops Yield in the Urals of the Nonblack Earth Zone of Russia

Elena Korepanova, Ildus Fatykhov, Chulpan Islamova, Vera Goreeva

Abstract

Proper selection of tillage system is important to increase yields. The work purpose is to assess the effectiveness of three different crop rotation and tillage systems combined with the chemistries use and repetitive sowing methods on spring wheat productive capacity and technology properties of its grains under natural conditions of the Urals in the nonblack earth zone of Russia. The study's objectives included studying the effectiveness of tillage systems in the region's conditions, evaluating the need for the use of chemicals, assessing the impact of each of the factors: meteorological conditions, soil fertility, agrotechnology, and intensification methods on wheat yield indicators. A comprehensive approach is used throughout this work. The study was carried out in 2006-2019 in the forest-steppe region of the Southern Urals (Ural Federal District of the Russian Federation). An experiment involving three influencing factors was performed: Factor 1 – the tillage system in crop rotation; Factor 2 – the chemical methods use; Factor 3 – the preceding crop presence. An inverse relationship was found between spring wheat productivity and weed share (Pearson correlation -0.83). There was a negative correlation between the distance from fallow to the plants' proportion affected by fungal rot. Their number has multiplied by more than 1.7. Depending on the preceding crop, the average yield for fallow wheat was 2.94 t per 1 ha, and for the third wheat after fallow, 1.44 t per 1 ha. The study bridged the lack of knowledge in the established task of increasing wheat yields in the Urals steppe forest territories. The three most important factors influencing wheat grain yield and quality are: 1) combined use of chemicals and fertilizers (45% contribution), availability of the forecrop, meteorological and climatic conditions, and tillage system. Consequently, the yield of spring wheat is related to the level of modern agricultural technologies development, particularly on the level of intensification required. Future similar studies should create a unified spring wheat database and allow the ability to adjust performance indicators depending on areas with different climatic conditions.

Keywords:

Spring wheat; yield; intensification; chemicals use; fallow; tillage.

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