International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 7 (2017) No. 5, pages: 1886-1893, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.7.5.1592

Population and Diversity of Indigenous Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi from Shallots Rhizosphere in Different Altitudes in West Sumatra

Eka Susila, Aswaldi Anwar, Auzar Syarif, Agustian Agustian

Abstract

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) of indigenous  believed to be more efficient and effective in helping the growth of plants.  Observations diversity of indigenous AMF conducted at several locations of centers of shallot cultivation in West Sumatra.  AMF existence is closely related to environmental factors (abiotic and biotic ). Sampling was based on the different in altitude :  highland (Alahan Panjang), middle land ( Saniang Baka ) and lowland  (Kambang).  Indigenous AMF identification using morphological approach. The present study was undertaken to 1) look at the population and species diversity of AMF indigenous derived from shallots rhizosphere in different altitudes in West Sumatra and determine whether there are differences on the number and type of AMF at any location, 2) identified morphological characters of AMF spores.    19 types of indigenous AMF derived from shallots cropland in West Sumatra that Scutelospora (4 types), Glomus (10 types), Gigaspora (2 types), Acaulospora (3 types). We found the genus Glomus dominant in this study.  Of the three locations, the greatest of AMF types was found in the area Saniang Baka (13 species), followed by Alahan Panjang  (12 types) and Kambang (10 types).   The number of species did not always a correlate with the number of spores.  AMF spore count decreased with increasing height above sea level.  Differences in altitude correlated negatively with  the number of spores produced.   The lowland, Kambang having a higher spore count (817 spores) than Saniang Baka in the middle land (798 spores) and Alahan Panjang in the highland (687 spores). It appears that differences in altitude affect the production of spores.

Keywords:

indigenous AMF, altitude, population, diversity.

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