International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 13 (2023) No. 2, pages: 469-476, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.13.2.16839

The Efficiency of All Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design Generations in Malaysia Housings

Radzi Ismail, Khoo Terh Jing, Ha Chin Yee, Mohd Wira Mohd Shafiei


Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is an effective approach in reducing the crime rate in residential area which recognized by experts. This approach was introduced in 1960s where the built environment of housing was emphasized initially in first generation CPTED while social dimension was utilized in second generation CPTED. Nowadays, CPTED has improved significantly from the first generation which only emphasize on the physical features of the artificial environment to second generation which consider the social aspects such as mutual trust and sense of belongings among the residents. Since the implementation of CPTED has been long executed, this theory should evolve along with the application of internet technology today as social cohesion has weak physically. People prefer to communicate online during their convenience time. Thus, third generation CPTED which emphasizes the adoption of internet and cloud system should be considered. This study has gone through all generations of CPTED by reviewing relevant literature and intended to develop a third generation CPTED. As a result, the concept of sustainability that consists of environmental, economic, and social dimensions; and connectivity via internet should be added into CPTED on top of the existing tangible and intangible criteria arise from first and second generation CPTED. The outcome of this article can be made as the foundation of the creating of third generation CPTED which can help to reduce crime without huge initial, implementation and maintenance cost to the residents.


Crime reduction; connectivity; CPTED; Malaysia; third generation

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