International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 8 (2018) No. 4-2: Special Issue on Empowering the Nation via 4IR (The Fourth Industrial Revolution)., pages: 1698-1705, Chief Editor: Khairuddin Omar | Editorial Boards : Shahnorbanun Sahran Hassan, Nor Samsiah Sani, Heuiseok Lim & Danial Hoosyar, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.8.4-2.6829

Machine Learning Approach for Bottom 40 Percent Households (B40) Poverty Classification

Nor Samsiah Sani, Mariah Abdul Rahman, Azuraliza Abu Bakar, Shahnurbanon Sahran, Hafiz Mohd Sarim

Abstract

Malaysia citizens are categorised into three different income groups which are the Top 20 Percent (T20), Middle 40 Percent (M40), and Bottom 40 Percent (B40). One of the focus areas in the Eleventh Malaysia Plan (11MP) is to elevate the B40 household group towards the middle-income society. Based on recent studies by the World Bank, Malaysia is expected to enter the high-income economy status no later than the year 2024. Thus, it is essential to clarify the B40 population through a predictive classification as a prerequisite towards developing a comprehensive action plan by the government. This paper is aimed at identifying the best machine learning models using Naive Bayes, Decision Tree and k-Nearest Neighbors algorithm for classifying the B40 population. Several data pre-processing task such as data cleaning, feature engineering, normalisation, feature selection: Correlation Attribute, Information Gain Attribute and Symmetrical Uncertainty Attribute and sampling methods using SMOTE has been conducted to the raw dataset to ensure the quality of the training data. Each classifier is then optimized using different tuning parameter with 10-Fold Cross Validation for achieving the optimal values before the performance of the three classifiers are compared to each other. For the experiments, a dataset from National Poverty Data Bank called eKasih obtained from the Society Wellbeing Department, Implementation Coordination Unit of Prime Minister's Department (ICU JPM), consisting of 99,546 households from 3 different states: Johor, Terengganu and Pahang are used to train each of the machine learning model. The experimental results using 10-Fold Cross-Validation method demonstrates that the overall performance of Decision Tree model outperformed the other models and the significance test specified the result is statistically significance.

Keywords:

Bottom 40, B40 Classification, Poverty, Decision Tree, k-Nearest Neighbors, Naïve Bayes, Parameter Tuning

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