International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 9 (2019) No. 2, pages: 518-525, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.9.2.7449

The Combination of Piper Caninum Blume Leaf Extract and Compost Fertilizer for Pressing Blast Disease and Improving Growth of Bali Red Rice (Oryza Sativa Linn)

Ni Luh Suriani, Anak Agung Ketut Darmadi, Ni Made Susun Parwanayoni, Mohamad Hasnul Naim Abd Hamid, Bohari M Yamin

Abstract

Blast disease is a spotting disease on the leaves that attacks rice, rice grains become empty and finally causing a significant loss in rice production. Many factors that cause blast disease include the continuous use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides which could decrease soil fertility resulting in a decrease in rice yield. One way to restore soil fertility and increase rice production is to use organic methods such as using biopesticides and compost. The purpose of this study is to obtain the most appropriate formulation between biopesticides, P. caninum BL. leaf extract and compost to suppress blast disease and improve results in red Bali rice cultivation. This research was conducted in the field in Senganan Village, Penebel, Tabanan Bali, a flat area of about 300m above sea level. The experiment was carried out using a randomized block design (RBD) with 4 set of different treatments. The mixture of 40% compost and 2% piper caninum Bl. leaf extract was found to be the most effective formulation to suppress blast disease by 57.17% when tested in a 0.2-hectare paddy field. The significant reduction of blast disease and the use of organic fertilizer have improved the growth of red rice as shown by the average number of tillers (12.9) and leaves (60.5 strands) after 12 weeks of transplant.   The yield of the rice after 3 months of cultivation was 5.51 ton / ha, an increase by 2.40%.  The morphology of the ripen grain of F4 treated clamps were studied and EDX analysis showed only carbon and oxygen are the major elements and trace amount of potassium and magnesium were detected. The crystalline nature of the rice is shown by the presence of polyhedral shape of starch with the size between 3 and 6 µm in the endosperm area. The silicon was only observed in the hull layer.  At an optimal extract concentration, the yield was increased significantly by 77%. However, above the optimal concentration of the extract toxic behaviour was observed in both the growth and reduction of yield. This may be due to the toxicity nature of the many active components that were present in the extract. Therefore, further study is necessary to understand the mode of action and side effects that enable to assist in the modelling work for cultivation management and practices.

Keywords:

Bali red rice; organic; compost; extract; P.caninum; morphology; blast.

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