International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, Vol. 12 (2022) No. 2, pages: 539-549, DOI:10.18517/ijaseit.12.2.14909

A Flipped Classroom Framework for Teaching and Learning of Programming

Rosnizam Eusoff, Abdullah Mohd Zin, Syahanim Mohd Salleh


Programming is a difficult subject that requires high analytical skills to comprehend students. Various strategies are introduced to improve difficulties in learning programming for students. This study examined four flipped classroom frameworks and was triangulated with the findings of document analysis from 44 articles related to flipped classrooms in programming. The articles were coded using five different codes emergent from the research questions. The coding produced 314 quotations related to the research questions. The purposes of the flipped classroom are to prepare students before class, give extra in-class time, and create an active learning environment in the classroom. The flipped classroom was implemented mostly in two phases: pre-class sessions and in-class sessions, with individual and collaborative work activities. Ensuring the participation of students in the activities outside the classroom is the biggest challenge in a flipped classroom, while preparing tools and activities is cumbersome to some lecturers. The pre-class activities focus on the introduction and theoretical topic. The implementation of flipped classrooms reported improving students' skills, competencies, and satisfaction in programming. The potential of exploring analysis and problem-solving activities in pre-class sessions while strengthening students' knowledge in post-class sessions seems to be assured. A flipped classroom framework for programming is proposed. The framework has three phases; pre-class, in-class, and post-class, with suggestions, activities, and motivational elements to complement the conceptual and technical needs in programming using flipped classroom approach.


Learning of programming; flipped classroom; active learning; collaborative learning.

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