Improving The Growth and Yield of Pak Choy (Brassica chinensis L.) Using Cacao Pod Husk Biochar

Siti Suharyatun (1), Agus Haryanto (2), M. Daffa Wahyu Wardhana (3), Sugeng Triyono (4), Ofik Taufik Purwadi (5), Febryan Kusuma Wisnu (6)
(1) Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 35145 Indonesia
(2) Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 35145 Indonesia
(3) Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 35145 Indonesia
(4) Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 35145 Indonesia
(5) Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, The University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 35145 Indonesia
(6) Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, The University of Lampung, Bandar Lampung, 35145 Indonesia
Fulltext View | Download
How to cite (IJASEIT) :
Suharyatun, Siti, et al. “Improving The Growth and Yield of Pak Choy (Brassica Chinensis L.) Using Cacao Pod Husk Biochar”. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 14, no. 2, Apr. 2024, pp. 777-85, doi:10.18517/ijaseit.14.2.19536.
This work aimed to assess the influence of cacao pod husk biochar treatments combined with the urea fertilizer addition on the growth and yield of pak choy (Brassica chinensis L.). The study used pot trials in a completely randomized design with two factors. The first was the addition of biochar from cacao pod husk, which consisted of 4 levels, namely 0, 62, 125, and 187 g/pot. The second factor was the dosage of urea addition with 4 levels, namely 0, 0.46, 0.93, and 1.40 g/pot. Pak choy was planted in triplicate polybags. Plant parameters included plant height, number of leaves, canopy cover area, fresh yield, water consumption, and water productivity. The results exhibited that adding biochar was significant in terms of parameters. Low dose biochar (62 g/pot) increased plant height, number of leaves, and water productivity, whereas high dose (125 to 187 g/pot) negatively affected pak choy growth and yield. The addition of urea is significant, except for pH and number of leaves. A fertilizer dose of up to 1.40 g/pot positively affected plant growth and yield of the pak choy. The most optimal interaction of the two factors occurred at a biochar dose of 62 g/pot and urea dose of 1.40 g/pot, which produced a maximum crop fresh yield of 111.83 g/plant. This research concluded that biochar from pyrolysis of cacao pod husk can be employed as soil amendment during pak choy cultivation but with controlled doses.

J. S. Siemonsma and K. Piluek, Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 8: Vegetables. Wageningen, The Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers, 1993.

J.-E. Park, J. Kim, E. Purevdorj, Y.-J. Son, C. W. Nho, and G. Yoo, “Effects of long light exposure and drought stress on plant growth and glucosinolate production in pak choi (Brassica rapa subsp. Chinensis),” Food Chem, vol. 340, p. 128167, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.128167.

Badan Pusat Statistik, Statistical Yearbook of Indonesia 2023. Jakarta: Badan Pusat Statistik, 2023.

Badan Pusat Statistik, Lampung Province in Figures 2023. Bandar Lampung: BPS Provinsi Lampung, 2023.

D. D. M. Hamdan, M. A. M. Nizam, K. Seow, N. Z. Zahari, and S. A. Rahim, “Trace elements uptake in Brassica rapa Chinensis cultivated in ultrabasic (oxisol) and ultisol soils, North Borneo,” J Phys Conf Ser, vol. 2314, no. 1, p. 012026, 2022, doi: 10.1088/1742-6596/2314/1/012026.

G. Niu, J. Masabni, T. Hooks, D. Leskovar, and J. Jifon, “The performance of representative asian vegetables in different production systems in Texas,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 9, p. 1874, 2021, doi:10.3390/agronomy11091874.

Y.-G. Kang et al., “Effects of varying rates of nitrogen and biochar pH on NH3 emissions and agronomic performance of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. Pekinensis),” Agronomy, vol. 12, no. 1, p. 61, 2021, doi: 10.3390/agronomy12010061.

Septiyana, Husnain, L. R. Widowati, A. F. Siregar, and A. Samsun, “The use of soil ameliorants and fertilizers to increase the yields of rice and maize in ultisols Lampung, Indonesia,” IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci, vol. 648, no. 1, p. 012198, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/648/1/012198.

J. W. Gabhane, V. P. Bhange, P. D. Patil, S. T. Bankar, and S. Kumar, “Recent trends in biochar production methods and its application as a soil health conditioner: a review,” SN Applied Sciences, vol. 2, no. 7. Springer Nature, Jul. 01, 2020. doi: 10.1007/s42452-020-3121-5.

A. Haryanto et al., “Valorization of Indonesian wood wastes through pyrolysis: A review,” Energies (Basel), vol. 14, no. 5, p. 1407, 2021, doi: 10.3390/en14051407.

Y. Gao, G. Shao, J. Lu, K. Zhang, S. Wu, and Z. Wang, “Effects of biochar application on crop water use efficiency depend on experimental conditions: A meta-analysis,” Field Crops Res, vol. 249, Apr. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.fcr.2020.107763.

I. Criscuoli et al., “Stability of woodchips biochar and impact on soil carbon stocks: Results from a two-year field experiment,” Forests, vol. 12, no. 10, Oct. 2021, doi: 10.3390/f12101350.

A. Gross, T. Bromm, and B. Glaser, “Soil organic carbon sequestration after biochar application: A global meta-analysis,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 12. MDPI, Dec. 01, 2021. doi: 10.3390/agronomy11122474.

N. Nayak, R. Mehrotra, and S. Mehrotra, “Carbon biosequestration strategies: a review,” Carbon Capture Science and Technology, vol. 4. Elsevier Ltd, Sep. 01, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.ccst.2022.100065.

N. Geng et al., “Biochar mitigation of soil acidification and carbon sequestration is influenced by materials and temperature,” Ecotoxicol Environ Saf, vol. 232, p. 113241, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113241.

M. Vergara-Mendoza, G. R. Martínez, C. Blanco-Tirado, and M. Y. Combariza, “Mass balance and compositional analysis of biomass outputs from cacao fruits,” Molecules, vol. 27, no. 12, p. 3717, 2022, doi: 10.3390/molecules27123717.

M. F. Baidoo et al., “Conventional and unconventional transformation of cocoa pod husks into value-added products,” in Biomass, Biorefineries and Bioeconomy, M. Samer, Ed., IntechOpen, 2022. [Online]. Available:

L. Y. Ouattara et al., “Cocoa pod husks as potential sources of renewable high-value-added products: A review of current valorizations and future prospects,” Bioresources, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 1988–2020, 2021, doi:

W.-T. Tsai, C.-H. Hsu, Y.-Q. Lin, C.-H. Tsai, W.-S. Chen, and Y.-T. Chang, “Enhancing the Pore Properties and Adsorption Performance of Cocoa Pod Husk (CPH)-Derived Biochars via Post-Acid Treatment,” Processes, vol. 8, no. 2, p. 144, 2020, doi: 10.3390/pr8020144.

F. Picchioni et al., “Valorisation of natural resources and the need for economic and sustainability assessment: The case of cocoa pod husk in Indonesia,” Sustainability (Switzerland), vol. 12, no. 21, pp. 1–16, Nov. 2020, doi: 10.3390/su12218962.

D. Oduro-Mensah, A. Ocloo, T. Nortey, S. Antwi, L. K. Okine, and N. A. Adamafio, “Nutritional value and safety of animal feed supplemented with Talaromyces verruculosus-treated cocoa pod husks,” Sci Rep, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 13163, 2020, doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-69763-9.

D. C. Meza-Sepúlveda, A. M. Castro, A. Zamora, J. W. Arboleda, A. M. Gallego, and A. V Camargo-Rodríguez, “Bio-based value chains potential in the management of cacao pod waste in Colombia, a case study,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 4, p. 693, 2021, doi:10.3390/agronomy11040693.

D.-G. J. M. Hougni, A. G. T. Schut, L. S. Woittiez, B. Vanlauwe, and K. E. Giller, “How nutrient rich are decaying cocoa pod husks? The kinetics of nutrient leaching,” Plant Soil, vol. 463, no. 1, pp. 155–170, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s11104-021-04885-1.

A. Haryanto et al., “Use of corncob biochar and urea for pakchoi (Brassica rapa L.) cultivation: Short-term impact of pyrolysis temperature and fertiliser dose on plant growth and yield,” Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, vol. 123, no. 2, pp. 251–257, 2022.

G. P. Ngalani, F. D. Kagho, N. N. C. Peguy, P. Prudent, J. A. Ondo, and E. Ngameni, “Effects of coffee husk and cocoa pods biochar on the chemical properties of an acid soil from West Cameroon,” Arch Agron Soil Sci, vol. 0, no. 0, pp. 1–15, 2022, doi:10.1080/03650340.2022.2033733.

J. O. Eduah, S. W. Henriksen, E. K. Nartey, M. K. Abekoe, and M. N. Andersen, “Nonlinear sorption of phosphorus onto plant biomass-derived biochars at different pyrolysis temperatures,” Environ Technol Innov, vol. 19, p. 100808, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.eti.2020.100808.

K. O. Iwuozor et al., “Unlocking the hidden value of pods: A review of thermochemical conversion processes for biochar production,” Bioresour Technol Rep, vol. 22, p. 101488, 2023, doi:10.1016/j.biteb.2023.101488.

N. A. Daba et al., “Long-term fertilization and lime-induced soil ph changes affect nitrogen use efficiency and grain yields in acidic soil under wheat-maize rotation,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 10, p. 2069, 2021, doi: 10.3390/agronomy11102069.

Y. Zhang et al., “The effects of long-term application of stabilized and coated urea on soil chemical properties, microbial community structure, and functional genes in paddy fields,” Agronomy, vol. 13, no. 9, p. 2190, 2023, doi: 10.3390/agronomy13092190.

J.-E. Lee et al., “Effects of soil pH on nutritional and functional components of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. campestris),” Korean Journal of Horticultural Science and Technology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 353–362, 2010.

R. Ariani, N. L. Nurida, and A. Dariah, “Utilization of cacao shell biochar and compost to improve cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) in acid upland,” IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci, vol. 648, no. 1, p. 012182, 2021, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/648/1/012182.

D. Losacco et al., “Use of biochar to improve the sustainable crop production of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.),” Plants, vol. 11, no. 9, p. 1182, 2022, doi: 10.3390/plants11091182.

A. Obadi, A. Alharbi, A. Alomran, A. G. Alghamdi, I. Louki, and A. Alkhasha, “Effect of biochar application on morpho-physiological traits, yield, and water use efficiency of tomato crop under water quality and drought stress,” Plants, vol. 12, no. 12, p. 2355, 2023, doi:10.3390/plants12122355.

K. A. Frimpong, C. A. Phares, I. Boateng, E. Abban-Baidoo, and L. Apuri, “One-time application of biochar influenced crop yield across three cropping cycles on tropical sandy loam soil in Ghana,” Heliyon, vol. 7, no. 2, p. e06267, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06267.

E. Yeboah, G. Asamoah, P. Ofori, B. Amoah, and K. O. A. Agyeman, “Method of biochar application affects growth, yield and nutrient uptake of cowpea,” Open Agric, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 352–360, 2020, doi:10.1515/opag-2020-0040.

S. R. Pinnamaneni, I. Lima, S. A. Boone, S. S. Anapalli, and K. N. Reddy, “Effect of continuous sugarcane bagasse-derived biochar application on rainfed cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) growth, yield and lint quality in the humid Mississippi delta,” Sci Rep, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 10941, 2023, doi: 10.1038/s41598-023-37820-8.

S. Yin et al., “Effect of biochar and hydrochar from cow manure and reed straw on lettuce growth in an acidified soil,” Chemosphere, vol. 298, p. 134191, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.134191.

Y. P. Situmeang, I. D. N. Sudita, and M. Suarta, “Application of compost and biochar from cow, goat, and chicken manure to restore soil fertility and yield of red chili,” Int J Adv Sci Eng Inf Technol, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 2008–2015, 2021.

C. Knoblauch, S. H. R. Priyadarshani, S. M. Haefele, N. Schröder, and E. Pfeiffer, “Impact of biochar on nutrient supply, crop yield and microbial respiration on sandy soils of northern Germany,” Eur J Soil Sci, vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 1885–1901, 2021, doi: 10.1111/ejss.13088.

T. Simms, H. Chen, and G. Mahato, “Dose-dependent effect of biochar as soil amendment on reducing copper phytotoxicity and mobility,” Int J Environ Res, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 751–759, 2020, doi: 10.1007/s41742-020-00293-y.

X. Jin, X. Zhou, F. Wu, W. Xiang, and K. Pan, “Biochar amendment suppressed fusarium wilt and altered the rhizosphere microbial composition of tomatoes,” Agronomy, vol. 13, no. 7, p. 1811, 2023, doi: 10.3390/agronomy13071811.

J. Sun et al., “Effect of different rates of nitrogen fertilization on crop yield, soil properties and leaf physiological attributes in banana under subtropical regions of China,” Front Plant Sci, vol. 11, 2020, doi:10.3389/fpls.2020.613760.

T. C. Jayalath and M. W. Van Iersel, “Canopy size and light use efficiency explain growth differences between lettuce and mizuna in vertical farms,” Plants, vol. 10, no. 4, p. 704, 2021, doi:10.3390/plants10040704.

Y. Shen et al., “Impacts of biochar concentration on the growth performance of a leafy vegetable in a tropical city and its global warming potential,” J Clean Prod, vol. 264, p. 121678, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121678.

A. K. Oluleye, M. O. Ogunlade, and O. B. Adewoyin, “Response of okra, Abelmoschus esculentus (L.) Moench, to biochar derived from cocoa pod husk and NPK fertiliser,” Tropical Agriculture, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 11–19, 2023.

Balai Penelitian Tanah, “Laporan Akhir Penelitian Formulasi Pembenahan Tanah Berbahan Baku Biochar untuk Meningkatkan Kualitas Tanah, Retensi Air, dan Produktivitas Tanaman >25% pada Lahan Kering Terdegradasi,” Jakarta, 2009.

P. Campos, H. Knicker, R. López, and J. M. De la Rosa, “Application of biochar produced from crop residues on trace elements contaminated soils: Effects on soil properties, enzymatic activities and Brassica rapa growth,” Agronomy, vol. 11, no. 7, Jul. 2021, doi:10.3390/agronomy11071394.

M. B. Yunindanova, S. Pramono, and M. H. Ibrahim, “Nutrient uptake, partitioning, and production of two subspecies of brassica using different solution concentrates in floating hydroponics systems,” Buletin Agroteknologi, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 86–97, 2020, doi:10.32663/ba.v1i2.1810.

M. Silitonga et al., “The effect of biochar dose and NPK fertilizer on the production and growth of pak choi plant,” in IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics Publishing, Dec. 2018. doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/205/1/012028.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).