Agronomic Characters Diversity of Pokem (Setaria italica L. Beauv) Accessions from Numfor Island, Papua, Indonesia

Syukur Karamang (1), - Ariffin (2), Eko Widaryanto (3), Nurul Aini (4)
(1) Doctoral Program at the Faculty of Agriculture, Brawijaya University, Malang, 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(2) Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang, 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(3) Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang, 65145, East Java, Indonesia
(4) Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Brawijaya, Jl. Veteran, Malang, 65145, East Java, Indonesia
Fulltext View | Download
How to cite (IJASEIT) :
Karamang, Syukur, et al. “Agronomic Characters Diversity of Pokem (Setaria Italica L. Beauv) Accessions from Numfor Island, Papua, Indonesia”. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, Aug. 2023, pp. 1297-01, doi:10.18517/ijaseit.13.4.18470.
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) or Jewawut, or expressly by the Papuan people as Papuan wheat or referred to as "Pokem" (Setaria italica L. Beauv). This is an endemic plant frequently found on Numfor Island, a part of Biak-Numfor Regency. The high potential and benefits of pokem present an opportunity to produce new varieties via plant breeding initiatives based on the diversity of pokem accessions from Numfor Island regarding superior accessions and germplasm conservation. The classification grouping can be determined based on the diversity of plant accessions. Based on the physical traits of pokem plant accessions, this study aims to discover and quantify their genetic diversity. The study was conducted at the Experimental Garden of the University of Papua's School of Agriculture in Amban Manokwari using pokem seeds collected from already-cultivated regions. This study utilized a Randomized Block Design (RBD) consisting of 15 pokem plant accessions with 4 (four) replications and 60 experimental units. On eleven agronomic characteristics, kinship observations were made. Using PCA, cluster, and biplot analyses, genetic distance was determined. The position of the panicle on the stem, leaf length, flag leaf width, stem length, stem diameter, panicle length, grain color, flowering duration, and number of long internodes all contribute to the 74.285% total diversity. The two pokem accessions from Numfor island with the highest genetic similarity are Kameri 2 (KM2) and Kansai 2 (KN2), but Kameri 1 (KM1) and Rimba Raya 3 (RR3) are genetically distant. It may serve as the parental cross. Stem and leaf lengths exhibited the most variability based on biplot results, while Kameri 1 (KM1) and Rimba Raya 3 (RR3) accessions exhibited the largest diversity based on agronomic parameters.

Badan Pusat Statistik. Hasil “Statistical yearbook of Indonesia”. BPS, Statistics Indonesia, 2021.

D. J. C. Hutabarat and V. A. Bowie. “Bioactive compounds in foxtail millet (Setaria italica) - extraction, biochemical activity, and health functional: A Review”. IOP Conf Ser: Earth Environ Sci 998: 012060, 2022, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/998/1/012060.

L. Dimara. Studi Pokem (Gandum Numfor) sebagai Bahan Pangan dan Sumber Vitamin A Alternatif bagi Masyarakat Papua. Prosiding Seminar Nasional: Pengembangan Agroindustri Berbasis Sumberdaya Lokal untuk Mendukung Ketanahanan Pangan. Universitas Brawijaya. Malang. pp. 167-175, 2008.

A. Malik. Pokem (Setaria italica L.) “Sumber Makanan Alternatif di Masa Datang”. [Online]. Available: Accessed on: Jun. 5, 2019.

S. Tirajoh. “Pemanfaatan Jawawut (Setaria italica) Asal Papua sebagai Bahan Pakan Pengganti Jagung”. Wartazoa, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 117-124, 2015, doi: 10.14334/wartazoa.v25i3.1156.

H. Hu, M. M. Herrera and A. N. Doust. “Domestication and Improvement in the Model C4 Grass, Setaria”. Frontiers in Plant Science, vol. 9, no. 719, 2018, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2018.00719.

R. Wang, C. Chen, and S. Guo. “Effects of drying methods on starch crystallinity of gelatinized foxtail millet (α-millet) and its eating quality”. Journal of Food Engineering, vol. 207, pp. 81-89, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jfoodeng.2017.03.018.

G. Zhang, X. Liu, Z. Quan, S. Cheung, X. Xu, S. Pan, M. Xie, P. Zeng, Z. Yue, W. Wang, Y. Tao, C. Bian, C. Han, Q. Xia, X. Peng, R. Cao, X. Yang, D. Zhan, J. Hu, Y. Zhang, H. Li, H. Li, N. Li, J. Wang, C. Wang, R. Wang, T. Guo, Y. Cai, C. Liu, H. Xiang, Q. Shi, P. Huang, Q. Chen, Y. Li, J. Wang, Z. Zhao, and J. Wang. “Genome Sequence of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) Provides Insights into Grass Evolution and Biofuel Potential”. Nature Biotechnol., vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 549-554, 2012, doi: 10.1038/nbt.2195.

F. Liu, S. Shan, H. Li, and Z. Li. “Treatment of peroxidase derived from foxtail millet bran attenuates atherosclerosis by inhibition of CD36 and STAT3 in vitro and in vivo”. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 1276-1285, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129421.

M. Eda, A. Izumitani, K. Ichitani, M. Kawase, and K. Fukunaga. “Geographical Variation of Foxtail Millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv Based on rDNA PCR-RFLP”. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol., vol. 60, pp. 265-274, 2013, doi: 10.1007/s10722-012-9832-8.

M. D. Dassanayake, F. R. Fosberg, and W. D. Clayton. A Revised handbook of the flora of Ceylon. Volume VIII. CRC Press, 1994.

S. Maitra, S. Pine, T. Shankar, A. Pal and B. Pramanick. “Agronomic Management of Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) in India for Production Sustainability: A Review”. IJBS, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 11-16, June 2020, doi: 10.30954/2347-9655.01.2020.3.

I. Amadou, M. E. Gounga, Y. H. Shi, and G. W. Le. “Fermentation and heat-moisture treatment induced changes on the physicochemical properties of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) flour.” Fd. Bioprod. Process., Vol. 92, pp. 38-45, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.fbp.2013.07.009.

P. K. E. Rao, J. M. J. De Wet, D. E. Brink, and M. H. “Mengesha. Intraspecific variation and systematics of cultivated Setaria italica, foxtail millet (Poaceae)”. Econ. Bot., vol. 41, pp. 108-116, 1987, doi: 10.1007/BF02859358.

X. Diao and G. Jia. “Origin and Domestication of Foxtail Millet”. A. Doust, X. Diao (eds.), Genetics and Genomics of Setaria, Plant Genetics and Genomics: Crops and Models, 19: 61-72, 2017, doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-45105-3_4.

B. K. Ghimire, C. Y. Yu, S. H. Kim and I. M. Chung. “Assessment of diversity in the accessions of Setaria italica L. based on phytochemical and morphological traits and ISSR markers”. Molecules, no.. 24, p. 1486. . 2019, doi: 10.3390/molecules24081486.

M. S. Mazid, M.Y. Rafii, M. M. Hanafi, H. A. Rahim and M. A. Latif. “Genetic Variation, Heritability. Divergence and Biomas Accumulation of Rice Genotypes Resistant to Bacterial Blight Revealed by Quantitative Traits and ISSR Markers”. Journal of Physiologia Plantarum, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 432-447, 2013, doi: 10.1111/ppl.12054.

A. Randall, Y. Yuwariah, A. Nuraini, T. Nurmala, A. W. Irwan, and W. A. Qosim. “Characterization and relationship of 23 Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) genotypes intercropped with Sweet Potato based on agromorphological traits”. Pangan, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 21-32, 2016.

S. Tirajoh, Achmanu, O. Sjofjan, and E. Widodo. “Evaluation of nutritive values of papua foxtail millet (Setaria italica sp) and its substitutive effect for yellow corn on broiler performances”. IJAAR, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 195-201, 2014.

S. Tirajoh, Achmanu, O. Sjofjan, and E. Widodo. “Nutrient Composition of Twoo Different Varieties of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica sp.) and Their Potential Use as Poultry Feed Ingredient”. Proc. International Conference on Livestock Production and Veterinary Technology, pp. 104-108, 2012.

International Board for Plant Genetic Resources (IBPGR). “Descriptors for Setaria italica and S. pumila”. IBPGR Secretariat. Rome, 1985.

International Union for The Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV). “Foxtail Millet. Guidelines for the conduct of test for distinctness, uniformity and stability”. International Union for The Protection of New Varieties of Plant. Geneva, 2013.

F.J. Rohlf. “NTSYSpc Numerical Taxonomy and Multivariate Analysis System Version 2.2 Getting Started Guide”. Department of Ecology and Evolution State University of New York, 2009, [Online]. Availabe:

J. N. R. Jeffers. Journal of the royal statistical society. Series C (Applied Statistics), vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 225-236, 1966.

B. G. Tabachnick, and L. S. Fidell. Using Multivariate Statistics. Pearson Education, Inc. Boston, 2006.

S. K. Jain, and P.R. Patel. “Principal component and cluster analysis in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)”. Forage Res., vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 90 - 95, 2016.

W. H. Hsieh, Y. C. Chen,H. C. Liao,Y. R. Lin and C. H. Chen. “High Differentiation among Populations of Green Foxtail, Setaria viridis, in Taiwan and Adjacent Islands Revealed by Microsatellite Markers”. Diversity, 13: 159, 2021, doi: 10.3390/d13040159.

T. Miswarti, Nurmala, Anas. “Characterization and relationship of 23 Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) genotypes intercropped with Sweet Potato based on agromorphological traits”. Pangan, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 166-177, 2014.

S. Mingjie, Xirui Kang a, Tingting Wang a, Lirong Fan a, Hui Wang a, Hong Pan a, Quangang Yang a, Hongmei Liu b, Yanhong Lou a, Yuping Zhuge. “Genotypic diversity of quality traits in Chinese foxtail millet (Setaria italica L.) and the establishment of a quality evaluation system”. Food Chemistry, vol. 353, p. 129421, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.

F. S. Koij, and J. Saba. “Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis to group lines and determine important traits in white bean”. Procedia Environ. Sci. vol. 29, pp. 38-40, 2015, doi:10.1016/j.proenv.2015.07.145.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).