The Effect of Probiotic-Induced Fermentation of Restaurant Waste on the Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fry

Yuli Andriani (1), Rita Anasih (2), Iskandar (3), Fittrie Mellyanawaty Pratiwy (4), Muhamad Fatah Wiyatna (5), Rusky I. Pratama (6)
(1) Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
(2) Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
(3) Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
(4) Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
(5) Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
(6) Fisheries Study Program, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor 45363, Indonesia
Fulltext View | Download
How to cite (IJASEIT) :
Andriani, Yuli, et al. “The Effect of Probiotic-Induced Fermentation of Restaurant Waste on the Growth of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio) Fry”. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 14, no. 1, Feb. 2024, pp. 157-63, doi:10.18517/ijaseit.14.1.19194.
The study explores using the fermentation process to convert organic restaurant waste into fish feed, a promising solution for aquaculture. The aim is to determine the best type and dosage of probiotics for fermenting restaurant waste (FRWM) and evaluate their impact on common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fry growth. Three commercial probiotics (P1, P2, and P3) were used at an 8% concentration for fermenting the waste. The best result from the fermentation trial was tested as feed containing different FRWM proportions: 0% (TA), 10% (TB), 20% (TC), 30% (TD), and 40% (TE) with 30% protein content. The trial lasted 42 days, assessing waste chemical composition before and after fermentation, growth rate, amylase and protease activity, feed conversion, survival rate, and water quality. Results showed P1 was most effective, increasing FRWM protein content by 84.25% and reducing crude fiber and fat by 15.17% and 3.94%, respectively. TE (40% FRWM) yielded the best outcomes, with fry common carp achieving a 1.05% daily growth rate and a feed conversion ratio of 0.80, indicating efficient feed utilization. TC (20% FRWM) exhibited the highest survival rate at 88.33%. The inclusion of FRWM influenced amylase activity, increasing enzyme levels and improving feed efficiency and growth rate. In conclusion, using FRWM, fermented with P1 probiotics, showed significant improvements in its composition, leading to enhanced fish growth and feed utilization. The 40% FRWM diet demonstrated the best fish growth rate and feed conversion performance. These findings support using fermented restaurant waste as sustainable and nutritious fish feed in aquaculture.

Rahmawati, Y., Kismiyati, M. and Lamid. “Effect of bromelin enzyme from pineapple weevil on efficiency and anatomical pathology in carp (cyprinus carpio) infested with Argulus japonicus,” Proceedings Series on Physical & Formal Science, vol. 4, pp. 467-474, 2022.

R. Suwandi, F.R. Karima, A.M. Jacoeb, and R. Nugraha. “Effect of cinnamon extract (Cinnamomum sp.) and freezing on common carp physiology (Cyprinus carpio),” Jurnal Pengolahan Hasil Perikanan Indonesia, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 255-268, 2021.

Statistik KKP. “Fisheries production” [Online]. Available: Accesed on Feb 3, 2023

United Nations (UN), “World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision, Volume 1: Comprehensive Tables” New York: Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division, ST/ESA/SER.A/313, 2011

G. Merino, M. Barange, J. I. Blanchard, J. Harle, R. Holmes, I. Allen, E. H. Allison, M. C. Badjeck, N. K. Dulny, J. Hilt, S. Jennings, C. Mullon, L.D. Rodwell, “Can Marine Fisheries and Aquaculture meet Fish Demand from a Growing Human Population in a Changing Climate”. Global Environmental Change, vo. 22, pp. 795-806, 2012.

Boyd, C.E., D’Abramo, L.R., Glencross, B.D., Huyben, D.C., Juarez, L.M., Lockwood, G.S., McNevin, A.A., Tacon, A.G.J., Teletchea, F., Tomasso Jr, J.R., Tucker, C.S., Valenti, W.C. 2020. Achieving Sustainable Aquaculture: Historical and Current Perspectives and Future Needs and Challenges. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 51, 578-633.

M. A. Sandra, Y. Andriani, K. Haetami, W. Lili, M.F. Wiyatna. “Effect of adding fermented FRWM meal with different concentration to physical quality of fish pellet,” Asian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Research, vol. 5, no.3, pp. 1-7, 2020.

Y. Andriani, M. F. Wiyatna, W. Lili, I. Zidni, and M. A. Sandra, “Effect of addition of fermented FRWM meal in artificial feed on the growth of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)” International and National Symposium on Aquatic Environment and Fisheries. 2021.

M. G. Abiad and L. I. Meho, “Food loss and food waste research in the Arab world: a systematic review” Food Security vol. 10, pp. 311-322, 2018.

Barrera, E.L., Hertel, T. 2021. Global Food Waste across the Income Spectrum: Implication for Food Prices, Production and Resource Use. Food Policy, 98, 101874

R. Zeineddine, S. Monzer, I. P. Saoud, and B. Ireland, “Preliminary assessment of restaurant food waste as a feed ingredient for small juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)” Aquaculture International vol. 29, no. 2., pp. 669-679, 2021

C. Rajeh, I. P. Saoud, S. A. Kharroubi, and S. Nalbandian, “Food loss and food waste recovery as animal feed: a systematic review” Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, vol. 23, no. 3., pp. 1-17, 2020

Mo, W.Y., Choi, W.M., Man, K.Y., Wong, M.H. 2020. Food Waste-based Pellets for Feeding Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): Adding Baker’s Yeast and Enzyme to enhance Growth and Immunity. Science of the Total Envuronment, 707, 134954.

Nasser, N., Abiad, M.G., Babikian, J., Monzer, S., Saoud, I.P. 2018. Using Restaurant Food Waste as Feed for Nile Tilapia Production. Aquaculture Research, 2018, 1-9.

Mo, W.Y., Cheng, Z., Choi, W.M., Man, Y.B., Liu, Y., Wong, M.H. 2014. Application of Food Waste based Diets in Polyculture of Low Trophic Level Fish: Effect on Fish Growth, Water Quality and Plankton Density. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 85 (2), 803-809.

Y. Achadri, F. G. Tyasari, and P.A. Dughita, “Utilization of organic waste from restaurants as an alternative to aquaculture feed” Jurnal Agronomika, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 210-213, 2018

M. El-Saadony, M. Alagawany, A.K. Patra, I. Kar, R. Tiwari, M. A. O. Dawood, K. Dharma, and H. M. R. Abdel-Latif. “The functionality of probiotics in aquaculture: an overview” Fish and Shellfish Immunology, vol. 117, pp. 36-52, 2021.

Effendie, M.I. 2006. Biologi Perikanan. Yayasan Pustaka Nusatama. Yogyakarta.

Y. Andriani, W. Lili, I. Zidni, M. F. Wiyatna, and Risdiana, “The effect of fermentation process on physical properties of organic material from domestic food waste,” Jurnal Key Engineering Materials, vol. 860, pp. 345-350, 2020

A. M. Sholihati, M. Baharuddin, and Santi “Production and test of cellulase enzyme activity from bacteria Bacillus subtilis” Jurnal Al-Kimia, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 78-90, 2015.

Nolefer, R., Nadeem, M., Irfan, M., Syed, Q. 2018. Nutritional Enhancement of Barley in Solid State Fermentation by Rhizopus oligosporus ML-10. Nutrition and Food Science, 6 (5), 1-7.

R. Iskandar, and S. Fitriadi, “Proximate analysis of processed feed for fish cultivators in Banjar Regency, South Kalimantan” Jurnal Ziraa’ah, vol. 42, no. 1., pp. 65-68, 2017.

R. F. Christi, A. Rochana, and I. Hernaman, “Effect of fermented concentrate on gross energy content, crude fiber and crude protein” Proc. Seminar Nasional Peternakan Berkelanjutan, vol. 8, Sumedang, Indonesia, pp. 718-723, 2016

H. P. Karlina, Y. Cahyoko, and Agustono “Coconut dregs fermentation using Trichoderma viride, Bacillus subtilis and EM4 on crude protein and crude fiber content as alternative fish feed ingredients” Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 77-84, 2013.

P. Suciati, W. Tjahjaningsih, E. D. Masithah, and H. Pramono, “Enzymatic activity of lactic acid bacteria isolates from the digestive tract of mangrove crabs as probiotic candidates” Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan, vol. 8 no. 2, pp. 94-108, 2016.

S. Syahrir, S. Rasjid, M. M. Zain, and Harfiah, “Mass change of protein, fat, fiber and BETN complete feed silage based on rice straw and mulberry biomass”, pp. 135-146, 2014 [online]. Available:

Y. Andriani, Z. Anna, Iskandar., Z. Hasan and M. F. Wiyatna, “The effectiveness of commercial probiotics appropriation on feed on nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)’s growth and feed conversion ratio,” Asian Journal of Microbiol. Biotech. Env. Sci, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2019

K. Kailasapathy, and J. Chin. “Survival and therapeutic potential of probiotic organisms with reference to Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium spp.,” Immunology and Cell Biology, vol. 78, no. 1, pp. 80-88. 2000.

K. A. Buckle, R. A. Edwards, G. H. Fleet, and M. Wootton, “Food Science” Jakarta: Universitas Indonesia Press. 2013, 365 p.

Andriani, Y., Hutapea, A.A., Zidni, I., Lili, W., Wiyatna, M.F. 2021. Literature Review on Fermentation Factors of Restaurant Organic Waste affecting Feed Quality. Depik, 10 (3), 277-283.

L. G. Tanake, “Effect of fish meal substitution with earthworm silage (Lumbricus rubellus) in artificial feed on feed utilization and growth of tiger grouper juveniles (Epinephelus fuscogutattus)” Journal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 26-27, 2013.

F. Erfanto, J., Hutabarat, and E. Arini, “Effect of substitution of trash fish silage with different percentages of artificial feed on feed efficiency, growth and survival of carp fry (Cyprinus carpio),” Jurnal of Aquaculture Management and Technology, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 26-36, 2013.

M. U. Puspitasari, H. Johannes, and E. H. Vivi, “The effect of the use of Lemna sp. on feed on the efficiency of feed utilization, growth and survival of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus),” Jurnal Pena Akuatika, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 53-75 2018.

A. Gawlicka,B. Parent, M. H. Horn, N. Ross, N., I. Opstad, and O. J. Torrissen, “Activity of digestive enzymes in yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus): indication of readiness for first feeding,” Aquaculture, vol: 184, no. 3–4, pp. 303-314, 2000.

M. Marzuqi, M., I W. Kasa, and N.A. Giri. “Growth response and amylase enzyme activity of milkfish (Chanos chanos Forsskal) fry fed with different carbohydrate content,” Media Akuakultur, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31-39, 2019.

Li, S., Li, C., Chen, S., Wang, X., Liu, J., Deng, X., Cai, H., Liu, G. 2023. Effect of Solid-state Fermentation on the Standardized Ileal Digestibility of Amino Acids and Apparent Metabolizable Energy in Peanut Meal Fed to Broiler Chicken. Fermentation, 9 (346), 1-14.

Yarlina, V.P., Djali, M., Andoyo, R. 2019. A Review of Protein Hydrolysis Fermented Foods and their Potential for Health Benefits. International Conference on Food and Bio-Industry, 443, 012085.

Guo, Q., Chen, P., Chen, X. 2023. Bioactive Peptides Derived from Fermented Foods: Preparation and Biological Activities. Journal of Functional Foods, 101, 105422.

D. Zhang, Y. Zhang, B. Liu, Y. Jiang, Q. Zhou, J. Wang, H. Wang, J. Xie, and Q. Kuang, “Effect of replacing fish meal with fermented mushroom bran hydrolysate on the growth, digestive enzyme activity, and antioxidant capacity of allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio)” Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, vol. 17, pp. 1039-1048, 2017.

García-Meilán, I., Herrera-Muñoz, J.I., Ordóñez-Grande, B., Fontanillas, R., Gallardo, Á. 2023. Growth Performance, Digestive Enzyme Activities, and Oxidative Stress Makers in the Proximal Intestine of European Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) Fed High Starch or Lipid Diets. Fishes, 8, 223.

Sarker, P.K. 2023. Microorganisms in Fish Feeds, Technological Innovations, and Key Strategies for Sustainable Aquaculture. Microorganisms, 11, 439.

N. A. Fauzana, “Potential of Banana Peel (Fermentation Technology for Fish Feed)” Bandung: Unpad Press, 2012

G. Oboh, “Nutrient enrichment of cassava peels using a mixed culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus spp. solid media fermentation techniques,” Biotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 46-48, 2006

Sukarman, “Various Alternative Local Raw Materials for Fish Feed” Jurnal Media Akuakultur, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 36-42, 2011

J. E. Setiawan, Y. T. A. Tarsim, and S. Hudaidah, “Effect of adding probiotics to feed with different doses on growth, survival, feed efficiency and protein retention in catfish (Pangasius hypophthalamus),” Jurnal Rekayasa dan Teknologi Budidaya Perairan, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 151-162, 2013

Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan, 2016. KEPMENKP No.24/KEPMEN-KP/2016. Pelepasan Ikan Mas (Cyprinus carpio) Rajadanu tahan Penyakit KHV.

A. Nurulaisyah, D. N. Setyowati, B. H. Astriana, “Potential use of fermented cassava leaves (Manihot utilissima) as a feed ingredient to increase the growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio).” Jurnal Perikanan, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 134-147, 2020.

Enyidi, U.D., Etim, E.O. 2020. Use of Solid state Fermentation Bambara Nut meal as Substitute of Fishmeal in the Diets of African Catfish Clarias gariepinus. Iranian Journal of Fisheries Science, 19 (4) 1889-1910.

Y. T. Saloko, Rachimi, I. R. Eka, and H. Yanti, “The effect of giving different fermented yellow corn in feed on the growth rate and survival rate of barnet fish (Leptobarbus hoevenii)” Jurnal Ruaya, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 6-10, 2015

Dedi, H. Irawan, and W. K. A. Putra, “The effect of giving thyroxine hormone to megami pellet feed on the growth of cantang grouper fries Epinephelus fuscoguttatuslanceolatus” Jurnal Intek Akuakultur, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 33-48, 2018.

Suwarsito and Cahyo, “Utilization of tofu waste as feed for nilem fish in Cikembulan Village, Pekucen District, Banyumas Regency” Univ. Muhammadiyah Purwokerto. Indonesia, 2005

Y. I. Siregar, and Adelina. “Effect of vitamin c on increasing blood hemoglobin (Hb) and survival of common carp fries (Cyprinus carpio).” Jurnal Natur Indonesia, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 75-81, 2009

Indonesian National Standard “01- 6131 – 1999. Production of Common carp parent (Cyprinus carpio Linneaus) Majalaya strain main class parent (Parent Stock)” Jakarta: Badan Standarisasi Nasional, pp. 1-12, 1999

M. A. Suprayudi, “Local raw materials: challenges and hopes for future aquaculture” Proc. Simposium Nasional Bioteknologi Akuakultur III. BDP FPIK. Institut Pertanian Bogor. Indonesia, 2010

Heltonika, B., Afriani, S., Siagian, D.R., Lesmana, I., Karsih, O.R. 2022. Potential of Fermented Commercial Feed to Replace Silk Worms on Post Larvae of Asian Redtail Catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Series, 1118, 012002.

R. D. Umam, C. Sriherwanto, E. Yunita, I. and Suja’i, “Growth of common carp fed with rice bran-coconut bagasse mixed substrate fermented using Rhizopus oryzae” Jurnal Bioteknologi dan Biosains Indonesia, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 81-87, 2015

A. Nurulaisyah, D. N. Setyowati, and B. H. Astriana, “Potential use of fermented cassava leaves (Manihot utilissima) as a feed ingredient to increase the growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio)” Jurnal Perikanan, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 134-147, 2020

Seravina, Subandiyono and A. Sudaryono, “The effect of the use of fermented cocoa pod (Theobroma cacao L.) meal in feed on the efficiency of utilization and growth of carp (Cyprinus carpio)” Jurnal Sains Akuakultur Tropis, vol. 3 no. 2, pp. 31-40, 2019

S. Rahmadani, D. N. Setyowati, and D. P. Lestari, “The effect of substitution of cassava leaf meal (Manihot utilisima) fermented using Rhizopus sp. on feed on the growth and survival of common carp fry (Cyprinus carpio)” Jurnal Perikanan, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 70-76, 2020

M. Arief, D. K. Pertiwi, and Y. Cahyoko, “The effect of artificial feed, natural feed and their combinations on growth, feed conversion ratio and survival rate of Anguila eel (Anguilla bicolor)” Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 61-65, 2011

R. B. K. Haris, and I. A. Yusanti, “Water suitability analysis for floating net cages in Sirah Pulau Padang District, Ogan Komering Ilir Regency, South Sumatra Province” Jurnal Lahan Suboptimal, vol. 8, no. 1, 2019.

M. G. H. Kordi, and A. B. Tancung, “Water Quality Management” Jakarta: PT. Rineka Cipta, 2007. 238 pp.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).