Characteristics of Wet Noodles from Mixed Flour (Wheat and MOCAF) and Butterfly Pea Flower Powder

Herlina (1), Tiara Ayu Nashiroh (2), Niken Widya Palupi (3), Yuli Wibowo (4), Lituhayu Supartiningrum (5), Thabed Tholib Baladraf (6)
(1) Department of Agriculture Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
(2) Department of Agriculture Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
(3) Department of Agriculture Product Technology, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
(4) Department of Agro-industrial, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
(5) Department of Agro-industrial, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
(6) Department of Agro-industrial, Faculty of Agriculture Technology, University of Jember, Jember, Indonesia
Fulltext View | Download
How to cite (IJASEIT) :
Herlina, et al. “Characteristics of Wet Noodles from Mixed Flour (Wheat and MOCAF) and Butterfly Pea Flower Powder”. International Journal on Advanced Science, Engineering and Information Technology, vol. 14, no. 3, June 2024, pp. 1035-41, doi:10.18517/ijaseit.14.3.19635.
Modified cassava flour (MOCAF) is a potential ingredient that can be applied to various products, especially when combined with wheat flour. However, previous research has shown that the combination of MOCAF and wheat flour produces low-quality noodle products. Adding polyphenol compounds from butterfly pea flowers will improve wet noodles' functional and nutritional properties. This study aimed to determine the effect of adding butterfly pea flower powder on the wheat flour and MOCAF mixture and its characteristics in wet noodles with varying percentages of butterfly pea flower powder. The method used in this research is a laboratory experiment. In this study, adding butterfly pea powder was 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%. Modified cassava flour characteristics studied included thermal, rheological, and functional properties. The results showed that the percentage of butterfly pea flower powder affected the rheological and thermal properties of the flour mixture. The addition of 5% butterfly pea flower powder was the best treatment, with a cooking shrinkage value of 1.97%, water absorption of 20.79%, chewiness of 9.81%, total polyphenols of 0.26 mg/g, antioxidant activity of 26.15%, level of preference for color 5.23, level of choice for aroma 4.97, level of choice for texture 3.97, level of choice for taste 4.8, and level of preference for overall 4.8. The use of butterfly pea flower powder in wheat flour and its application in wet noodles has been proven to improve functional properties and health benefits for consumers.


BPS, “Catalog : 1101001,” Stat. Indones. 2020, vol. 1101001, p. 790, 2022.

F. Rozi et al., “Indonesian market demand patterns for food commodity sources of carbohydrates in facing the global food crisis,” Heliyon, vol. 9, no. 6, p. e16809, 2023, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2023.e16809.

E. Soesilowati, N. Kariada, and O. Paramita, “Improving Non-wheat Flour Quality As a Form of Local Food Conservation,” KnE Soc. Sci., vol. 2019, pp. 146–156, 2019, doi: 10.18502/kss.v3i18.4708.

R. A. Zeinab, E.-G. M.M, and E.-S. A. M.Abd, “Substitution of wheat flour by local cereals and pulses flour ‘An approach to overcome wheat gap in Egypt’ 1. Protein and dry gluten content of flour,” Alexandria J. Agric. Sci., vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 215–237, 2018, doi: 10.21608/alexja.2018.26137.

M. G. R. Pandin, C. S. Waloejo, D. Sunyowati, and I. Rizkyah, “The Potential of Mocaf (Modified Cassava Flour) as Disaster Emergency Food,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 995, no. 1, pp. 0–7, 2022, doi: 10.1088/1755-1315/995/1/012006.

N. Diniyah, M. Iguchi, M. Nanto, T. Yoshino, and A. Subagio, “Dynamic Rheological, Thermal, and Structural Properties of Starch from Modified Cassava Flour (MOCAF) with Two Cultivars of Cassava,” J. Teknol. dan Manaj. Agroindustri, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 89–101, 2023.

J. Okoko, A. Alonge, and P. Ngoddy, “High quality-cassava flour (HQCF) composites: Their thermal characteristics in retrospect,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 445, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/445/1/012043.

F. Violalita, Evawati, S. Syahrul, H. F. Yanti, and K. Fahmy, “Characteristics of Gluten-Free Wet Noodles Substituted with Soy Flour,” IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci., vol. 515, no. 1, 2020, doi:10.1088/1755-1315/515/1/012047.

S. B. Wahjuningsih et al., “Formulation, Nutritional and Sensory Evaluation of Mocaf (Modified Cassava Flour) Noodles with Latoh (Caulerpa lentillifera) Addition,” Curr. Res. Nutr. Food Sci., vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 1008–1021, 2023, doi: 10.12944/CRNFSJ.11.3.08.

D. A. Prihayati and E. Purwani, “The Effect of Composite Flour Composition (Sorghum, Mocaf, and Wheat) on the Elongation, Tensile Strength, and Acceptance of Noodles,” p. 17, 2024, doi:10.3390/engproc2024063017.

A. Hinggiranja, N. M. A. S. Singapurwa, I. G. P. Mangku, I. P. Candra, and A. A. M. Semariyani, “The Characteristics of Wet Noodles from Mocaf Flour and Moringa Flour,” Formosa J. Sci. Technol., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 1091–1104, 2023, doi:10.55927/fjst.v2i4.3647.

W. Triadji Nugroho, M. Kurnianto, M. Wibowo, A. Brilliantina, and B. Hariono, “Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Dried Noodles with Addition of Telang Flower Extract (Clitoria ternatea L),” Food Agric. Sci. Polije Proc. Ser., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 96–102, 2020.

Netravati, S. Gomez, B. Pathrose, M. R. N, M. J. P, and B. Kuruvila, “Comparative evaluation of anthocyanin pigment yield and its attributes from Butterfly pea (Clitorea ternatea L.) flowers as prospective food colorant using different extraction methods,” Futur. Foods, vol. 6, no. August, p. 100199, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.fufo.2022.100199.

E. J. Jeyaraj, Y. Y. Lim, and W. S. Choo, “Extraction methods of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea) flower and biological activities of its phytochemicals,” J. Food Sci. Technol., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 2054–2067, 2021, doi: 10.1007/s13197-020-04745-3.

X. Fu, Q. Wu, J. Wang, Y. Chen, G. Zhu, and Z. Zhu, “Spectral Characteristic, Storage Stability and Antioxidant Properties of Anthocyanin Extracts from Flowers of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.),” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 22, p. 7000, Nov. 2021, doi:10.3390/molecules26227000.

T. N. M. Tuan Putra, M. K. Zainol, N. S. Mohdisa, and N. Mohdmaidin, “Chemical characterization of ethanolic extract of butterfly pea flower (Clitoria ternatea),” Food Res., vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 127–134, 2021, doi: 10.26656/fr.2017.5(4).744.

A. L. Girard and J. M. Awika, “Effects of edible plant polyphenols on gluten protein functionality and potential applications of polyphenol–gluten interactions,” Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 2164–2199, 2020, doi: 10.1111/1541-4337.12572.

X. Han et al., “Physicochemical interactions between rice starch and different polyphenols and structural characterization of their complexes,” Lwt, vol. 125, no. October 2019, p. 109227, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2020.109227.

R. A. T. Nilusha, J. M. J. K. Jayasinghe, O. D. A. N. Perera, and P. I. P. Perera, “Development of pasta products with nonconventional ingredients and their effect on selected quality characteristics: A brief overview,” Int. J. Food Sci., vol. 2019, 2019, doi:10.1155/2019/6750726.

A. Betrouche et al., “Antioxidant Properties of Gluten-Free Pasta Enriched with Vegetable By-Products,” Molecules, vol. 27, no. 24, pp. 1–17, 2022, doi: 10.3390/molecules27248993.

K. Jakobson et al., “Techno-Functional and Sensory Characterization of Commercial Plant Protein Powders,” Foods, vol. 12, no. 14, pp. 1–21, 2023, doi: 10.3390/foods12142805.

W. A. Adebayo, B. S. Ogunsina, and K. A. Taiwo, “AZOJETE-CIGR Section VI Special Issue: Innovation & Technologies for Sustainable Agricultural Production & Sensory, Textural and Cooking Quality of Instant Noodles Produced from Musa SPP-Wheat Composite Flours,” Food Suffic. AZOJETE, vol. 14, pp. 74–85, 2018.

S. Li, D. Tang, S. Liu, S. Qin, and Y. Chen, “Improvement of noodle quality: The effect of ultrasonic on noodles resting,” J. Cereal Sci., vol. 96, no. September, p. 103089, 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2020.103089.

M. Xu, Y. Wu, G. G. Hou, and X. Du, “Evaluation of different tea extracts on dough, textural, and functional properties of dry Chinese white salted noodle,” Lwt, vol. 101, no. August 2018, pp. 456–462, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.lwt.2018.11.066.

G. Park, H. Cho, K. Kim, and M. Kweon, “Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Fresh Noodles Formulated with Flour-Bran Blends Varied by Particle Size and Blend Ratio of Purple-Colored Wheat Bran,” Processes, vol. 10, no. 3, 2022, doi:10.3390/pr10030584.

A. Zhang, “Effect of wheat flour with different quality in the process of making flour products,” Int. J. Metrol. Qual. Eng., vol. 11, 2020, doi: 10.1051/ijmqe/2020005.

S. Kraithong and S. Rawdkuen, “Quality attributes and cooking properties of commercial Thai rice noodles,” PeerJ, vol. 9, 2021, doi:10.7717/peerj.11113.

Y. Zhao, X. Dai, E. Mackon, Y. Ma, and P. Liu, “Impacts of Protein from High-Protein Rice on Gelatinization and Retrogradation Properties in High-and Low-Amylose Reconstituted Rice Flour,” Agronomy, vol. 12, no. 6, 2022, doi: 10.3390/agronomy12061431.

S. X. Chen et al., “Effect of grape seed power on the structural and physicochemical properties of wheat gluten in noodle preparation system,” Food Chem., vol. 355, no. February, p. 129500, 2021, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129500.

R. Liu, C. Shi, Y. Song, T. Wu, and M. Zhang, “Impact of oligomeric procyanidins on wheat gluten microstructure and physicochemical properties,” Food Chem., vol. 260, pp. 37–43, 2018, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.103.

Y. Shen, S. Hong, G. Singh, K. Koppel, and Y. Li, “Improving functional properties of pea protein through ‘green’ modifications using enzymes and polysaccharides,” Food Chem., vol. 385, no. December 2021, p. 132687, 2022, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2022.132687.

G. K. Oguis, E. K. Gilding, M. A. Jackson, and D. J. Craik, “Butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea), a cyclotide-bearing plant with applications in agriculture and medicine,” Front. Plant Sci., vol. 10, no. May, pp. 1–23, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00645.

N. M. Thuy, V. Q. Minh, T. C. Ben, M. T. T. Nguyen, and H. T. N. Ha, “Identification of Anthocyanin Compounds in Butterfly Pea Flowers (Clitoria ternatea L.) by Ultra Performance Liquid,” Molecules, vol. 26, no. 7, pp. 1–13, 2021.

N. N. Hasanah, E. Mohamad Azman, A. Rozzamri, N. H. Zainal Abedin, and M. R. Ismail-Fitry, “A Systematic Review of Butterfly Pea Flower (Clitoria ternatea L.): Extraction and Application as a Food Freshness pH-Indicator for Polymer-Based Intelligent Packaging,” Polymers (Basel)., vol. 15, no. 11, 2023, doi:10.3390/polym15112541.

M. Gómez, L. C. Gutkoski, and Á. Bravo-Núñez, “Understanding whole-wheat flour and its effect in breads: A review,” Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 3241–3265, 2020, doi:10.1111/1541-4337.12625.

G. C. Vidana Gamage, Y. Y. Lim, and W. S. Choo, “Anthocyanins From Clitoria ternatea Flower: Biosynthesis, Extraction, Stability, Antioxidant Activity, and Applications,” Front. Plant Sci., vol. 12, no. December, pp. 1–17, 2021, doi: 10.3389/fpls.2021.792303.

J. H. Kim, J. E. Kim, W. H. Kim, K. V. Tan, and S. M. Shim, “Plant based protein products: Characterization and functionality of dried tofu noodles containing lotus root powder,” Food Biosci., vol. 43, no. April, p. 101342, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101342.

Gaikwad K K, Pawar G S, and Shingote A B, “Effect of Addition of quinoa Flour on Cooking and Sensorial qualities of Noodles,” Biol. Forum-An Int. J., vol. 13, no. 2, p. 660, 2021.

N. Ooms and J. A. Delcour, “How to impact gluten protein network formation during wheat flour dough making,” Curr. Opin. Food Sci., vol. 25, pp. 88–97, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.cofs.2019.04.001.

C. Deng, O. Melnyk, and Y. Luo, “Substitution of wheat flour with modified potato starch affects texture properties of dough and the quality of fresh noodles,” Food Sci. Technol., vol. 43, pp. 1–9, 2023, doi: 10.1590/fst.128222.

M. Schopf and K. A. Scherf, “Water absorption capacity determines the functionality of vital gluten related to specific bread volume,” Foods, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 0–12, 2021, doi: 10.3390/foods10020228.

S. Gomez, B. Pathrose, M. Joseph, and M. N. Raj, “Comparison of Anthocyanin Pigment Extraction Techniques to Evaluate the Free Radical Scavenging Capacity of Butterfly Pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) Flower,” Biol. Forum-An Int. J., vol. 14, no. 3, p. 995, 2022.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:

    1. Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
    2. Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
    3. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).